Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Are Form 8453 S Employed

Instructions and Help about Are Form 8453 S Employed

The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments in the history of how writing systems have evolved over in different human civilizations more complete writing systems were preceded by proto writing systems of IDIA graphic or early mnemonic symbols true writing in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct with a fair degree of accuracy the exact utterance written down is a later development it is distinguished from proto-writing which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance one of the earliest forms of written expression is Kamiya form topic inventions of writing topic it is generally agreed that true writing of language not only numbers which goes back much further was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more the two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia between three thousand four hundred and thirty three hundred BC and in Mesoamerica by 300 BC because no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions several Mesoamerican scripts are known the oldest being from the Olmec or Zapotec of Mexico independent writing systems also arose in Egypt around 3100 BC and in China around 1200 BC in shang dynasty shank chow but historians debate whether these writing systems were developed completely independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by Sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion that is it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked was passed on by traders or merchants travelling between the two regions more recent examples of this include Paha Hmong and the Cherokee syllabary ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the Near East and because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to log a graffia phonetic representation Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia in 1999 archaeology magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 BC which challenged the commonly held belief that early logographs pictographic symbols representing a specific place object or quantity first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia similar debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation the rongorongo script of Easter Island and the vinca symbols dated around 5500 BC all our undeciphered and so it is unknown if they represent true riding proto riding or something else topic writing systems topic symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the Associated spoken language to comprehend the text in contrast symbolic systems such as information signs painting maps and mathematics often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language every human community possesses language a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind see origin of language however the development of writing systems and their partial supplant ation of traditional oral systems of communication have been sporadic uneven and slow once established writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language the greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can report information consistently and in greater detail something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word writing allows societies to transmit information and to share knowledge topic recorded history topic scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto writing became true writing the definition is largely subjective writing in its most general terms is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes which may in turn be composed of glyphs the emergence of writing in a given area is usually followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions historians mark the historicist of a culture by the presence of coherent texts in the cultures writing systems the invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols possibly first for cultic purposes topic developmental stages topic a conventional proto-writing to true writing system follows a general series of developmental stages picture writing system glyphs simplified pictures directly represent objects and concepts in connection with this the following sub stages may be distinguished mnemonic glyphs primarily as a reminder pictographic glyphs directly represent an object or a concept such as a chronological b notices c communications d totems titles and names e religious f customs g historical and h biographical india graphic graphemes are abstract symbols that directly represent an idea or concept transitional system graphemes refer not only to the object or idea that it represents but to its name as well phonetic system graphemes refer to sounds or spoken symbols and the form of the grapheme is not related to its meanings this resolves itself into the following sub stages verbal grapheme laga graham represents a whole word syllabic grapheme represents a syllable alphabetic grapheme represents an elementary sound the best known picture writing system of IDIA graphic or early mnemonic symbols are Jiahu symbols carved on tortoise shells in Jiahu sea 6600 b.c vinca signs tart area tablets C 5300 BC early Indus script C 3100 BC I am the old world true writing